ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ İŞLETMESİNDEKİ SÜT SIĞIRI AHIRININ SORUNLARI VE GELİŞTİRME OLANAKLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Ali Rıza Uluata, A. Vahap Yağanoğlu
854 177

Öz


ÖZET
Bu araştırma, Atatürk Üniversiıesi Ziraat Fakültesi Işletmesinde"; 50 başlık kapalı ve duraklı süt sığırı ahırının çevre koşullarımn ve planlanma durumunun
saptanması, bunların iyileşterilmesi, çiftlik te ve yö;ede yeniden yapılacak ahırlarda
optimımı planlama koşullarının sağlanabilmesi için gözönünde bulundurulacak ilkeleri
saptamak -amacıyla yapılmıştır.
Araştırma ahmnda sıcaklık bağıl nem, havalandırma ve zafarlı gazların durumunu
belirlemek amacıyla iki yıl süreyle iilçümler yapılmıştır. Elde edilen veri/erin
ışığı altında, araştırma ahırınm hayvan sağlığı ve verimini olumlu yönde etki!eyici
çevr.e koşullarım sağlayamadığı,- uygun şekilde tertip ve tanzim edilmediği saptafl.mıştır.
Araştırma son.ucunda, inpelenen ahırda uygun çevre koşulkmnm sağlanabilme-
sine, tertip ve tazimindlişkin önerilerde bulunukırak; ffftlikte ve yörede uygulanaoilir
nitelikte olan 50 başlık kapalı ve duraklr süt sığırı ahır planı hazırlanmıştır.

SUMMARY


"A Study on The Problems ofhe Dairy Bam in The "Experiment Farm of The Agcicultural College of Atatürk Universityand possibilities for The Improvement"


This research is done to study the evnviroın.eutal conditions (temperature, reIatiye
humidity, ventilation, Iighting) İn the 50 cattle stal1 bam in the Agricultural
College of Atatürk University to determine the possibilities for the improvement of
this bam and to rnake suitable plans for the da.jry barns in thi~ region.
This study fs carried out for two years (1979-1981), There were 50 catdes in
the bam their total weignt W~s 24879,2 kg.
Thermohygrographs, recording weekly changes of the temperature and the,
relative-humidity were used. The wind speed at the outside and air velocites in the
openings w~re measured with different type of anemomemeter. The coneentratlOn
of earbondioxide and amonium ga~es also were mea.sured.
The results obtained from tese measurements and suggestions based on these
results are listeel' below:
-The average temperature 'in the bam was 9;7°C in the first year and 14.0oÇ
in the second year of the study. These temperatures are in the optimum range suggested
by the workers tn this field.
-The average daily relative humidity is found 86,9 %in the first year and
91,0 % in the second year. These values are in the level which could adversely
afect the ammaI health and yield.
-Because of highrelative humidity, water co.ndenses on the struetural materİal
of thebam. This conden..ation shortens the life of th materİals. Therefore, relative
h.umuidty Ifiust be controlled by ventilation and vapor insulation to k-eep the
.relative humudity İn the safe limits.
-The a-verage lıeat condustivity values for the walls, the ro o{, the doors and the
windows are determined. Theyare 2,535 WIm2 oC, 1,22~ Wlni.2 oC, WIm2 oC and.
5,882 WIm2 oC respectively. These figures are heigher than. the values suggested for the
shelters in the cold regions. So the heat insulation of this bam has to be
improved.
-For designing purposes, 8 oC and LO oC temperatures and 80 % relative
humidity for the inside.were selected -13 oC and 76 %relative humudity for the
o'utdoor are taken to make the necessery ea-lculations.
-The heat cQnduetİvity values should be 0,418 W/m2 oC, for the walls, 0338
W/m2 oC for the roof, 1,064 W/rn2 oC for the do'ots and 2,908 W/m2 oC for the
windows the inside .teroperature is 8 oC and respectively 0,295 W/m2 oC, 0,198
oC, 1,064 W/m2 oC and 2,908 W/ m2 oC for the inside temperature 10 oc.
-The air veloeities in the ''ientilatian out1ets were measüred and the average
ventilation rate was ea1culated as 8,3 m3/h per 454 kg body weight of eattle.
-The a~erage air veloeity in the bam İs faund out 0,3 m/s. This value is lower
thea the permisseble level suggestecl.
-It İs determined that the ventilation rate should be 83 m3/h per 454 kg body
weight fOf the inside temperature 8 oC and 74 m3/h per 454 kg body weight for
inside temperature 10 C to maintnin a suÜable environment in the bam.
-The total area of the out1ets is 0,09 m2 and of the inlets is 0,13 m2. The
total areas of theopenings and the ratio between them area not proper. The area
of the inlets should be- U9 m2 for 8 oC and 1,03 m2 for ıo oC; these values for
outlet should' be 0,86 m2 and 0,74 m2 respective1y.
·If a -rnchanieal ventiJation is desired, there is a need for there fans having
ehangeable speed and capadty 1500-4100 m3/h..
-The lighting is accomplished naturally and artifiealJy. The ratio of the windows
are a to floor area is 3,78 %and artificial lighting density is 2 WIm2. The
natural I~ghting is suffieicnt but artlfieal lighting is not l1ıe lighting density should
be 12 W/m2 fof the ineandesecent lamps and 2,4 W/m2 for the flomesecent
lamps.
-The amount of carbondioxide in the bam is between 432-1828 ppm and ammonia
is between 4-22 ppm. These volues are lower than the permissiable limits.
-The dimensİons of the barn are 9,05 m wide, 35,45 m Iong a!1d 3,20 m high.
The inner volume is 23,125 m3 per 454 kg body wei~ eattIe. These figures are
higher than what is required. .
-Stone and reinforced concrete are used for the foundation and outside wans.
whlch are 50 cm wide. Timber is used for the doors and the single glass -windows.
it is advisable that bricks, adobes, cinder blocks and light conerete blocks should
be used and doors have to be insulated and the windows should be double glassed.
-The roof is gable type. The height from the f100r to the ridge of roof is 470
cm and the rise is 150 cm. The roof type İs properlY chosen, but unnecessarly reinforced
conrete is extensively used and this İncreased the cost.
-This bam dooes not have a celIing. it is advisabe to bui/d a eeiling to help
the heat balance.
-A 50 eattla dairy stall bam plan is prepored for this region.


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