Investigation of Tick- and Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in Blacksea Region

Harun ALBAYRAK, Emre OZAN, Abdullah CAVUNT, Hamza KADİ, Mitat KURT, Cenk BOLUKBASI, Zafer PEKMEZCİ, Selma KAYA
1.094 446


Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalistis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South America, and the ongoing spread of West Nile virus throughout the America, show the geographical burden of flavivirus diseases. In this study, a total of 2340 adult ticks (675 hard tick pools) collected from the variety of mammalian species (cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo) and 3226 mosquitoes (142 mosquito pools) including Culex spp., Anopheles spp., Aedes spp., and Culicoides spp., trapped in Blacksea  region  of  northern  Turkey  were  surveyed  for  the presence  of RNA  from  mosquito-borne  flaviviruses  (MBFV)  and tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. No flavivirus genomic RNA was detected in these samples. This is the first study about both the TBFV and MBFV infections in Turkey.

Anahtar kelimeler

Kene, RT-PZR, Sinek, Türkiye, Vektör-taşıyıcılı flavivirus.

Tam metin:



Albayrak H., Ozan E., Kurt M., 2010. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) but not West Nile virus (WNV) in hard ticks from provinces in northern Turkey. Zoonoses Public Hlth., 57, e156–e160.

Anonim, 2010. Update on average annual values of heat, humidity, and rainfall, http//www. tahmin/ il-ve- ilceler.aspx [accessed on 8 October, 2010].

Burke DS., Monath TP., 2001. Flaviviruses. In “Fields Virology”, Eds., DM. Knipe, PM. Howley, 4 th edn, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

Calisher CH., Karabatsos N., Dalrymple JM., Shope RE., Porterfield JS., Westaway EG., Brandt WE., 19 Antigenic relationships between flaviviruses as determined by crossneutralization tests with polyclonal antisera. J. Gen. Virol., 70, 37–43. Charrel RN., Zaki AM., Attoui H., Fakeeh M., Billoir F., Yousef AL., De Chesse R., De Micco P., Gould EA., De Lamballerie, X., 2001. Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi Arabia. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co., 287, 455–461.

Dik B., Yagcı S., Linton YM., 2006. A review of species diversity and distribution of Culicoides

Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Turkey. J. Nat. Hist., 40, 1947–1967.

Ergunay K., Saygan MB., Aydogan S., Menemenlioglu D., Turan HM., Ozkul A., Us D., 2007a. West Nile virus seroprevalance in blood donors from central Anatolia, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 7, 157–161.

Ergunay K., Ozer N., Us D., Ozkul A., Simsek F., Kaynas S., Ustacelebi S., 2007b. Seroprevalance of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in southeastern Turkey: First evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus infections. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 10, 771–775.

Gaunt MW., Sall AA., De Lamballerie X., Falconar AK., Dzhivanian TI., Gould EA., 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of flaviviruses correlate with their epidemiology, disease association and biogeography. J. Gen. Virol., 82, 1867–1876.

Grard G., Moureau G., Charrel RN., Lemasson JJ., Gonzalez JP., Gallian P., Gritsun TS., Holmes EC., Gould EA., De Lamballerie X., 2007. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: New insight into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. Virology, 361, 80–92.

Hubalek Z., Halouzka J., 1999. West Nile fever – a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 5, 643–650.

Kurt R., Meece JK., Henkel JS., Shukla SK., 2002. Birds, migration and emerging zoonoses: West Nile virus, lyme disease, influenza A and enteropathogens. Clin. Med. Res., 1, 5–12.

Maher-Sturgess SL., Forrester NL., Wayper PJ., Gould EA., Hall RA., Barnard RT., Gibbs MJ., 200 Universal primers that amplify RNA from all three flavivirus subgroups. Virology J., 5, 1– Ozkul A., Yıldırım Y., Pinar D., Akcali A., Yilmaz V., Colak D., 2006. Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in mammalian species in

Turkey. Epidemiol. Infect., 134, 826–829. Pierre V., Drouet MT., Deubel V., 1994. Identification of mosquito-borne flavivirus sequences using universal primers and reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. Res. Virology., 145, 93–104.

Spackman E., Senne DA., Myers TJ., Bulaga LL., Garber LP., Perdue ML., Lohman K., Daum LT., Suarez DL., 2002. Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes. J. Clin. Microbiol., 40, 3256–3260.

Thiel HJ., Collett MS., Gould EA., Heinz FX., Meyers G., Purcell RH., Rice CM., Houghton M., 2005. Flaviviridae. In “Virus taxonomy–eighth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses”, Eds., CM. Fauquet, MA. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, LA. Ball, Academic Press, San Diego., 981-999

Uyar Y., Akcali A., Carhan A., Ozkaya E., Ertek M., 200 Seroprevalance of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) among cases with tick bite history in Turkey. Turk Hij. Den. Biyol. Derg., 64, 21–25.