Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışlarının Oluşumunda Lider Üye Etkileşimi Niteliğinin Etkisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma / A Research on the Effect of the Quality of Leader Member Exchange on the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

Burcu Ilgın
734 357

Öz


Öz: Sosyal etkileşim teorisine göre, belli koşullar altında insanlar, fayda gördükleri
kişilere karşılık verme çabası içine girerler (Bateman ve Organ,1983). Çalışanların fayda
gördükleri kişilere karşılık vermeye çalıştıkları davranış türlerinden birisi de örgütsel vatandaşlık
davranışları olabilmektedir (Tansky, 1993). Bu bakış açısından yola çıkarak yapılan
çalışmada, lider üye etkileşiminin niteliği ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları arasında
olumlu yönde ve anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu hipotez edilmiştir. Bu amaçla, Ankara’da
faaliyet gösteren yerel bir firmanın alt düzey çalışanlarından alınan örneklem üzerinde
araştırma uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları lider üye etkileşiminin niteliği ile örgütsel vatandaşlık
davranışları arasında olumlu ve anlamlı bir ilişki olduğunu göstermiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları, lider üye etkileşimi, sosyal
etkileşim

Abstract: Social exchange theory predicts that, given certain conditions, people
seek to reciprocate those who benefit them (Bateman & Organ, 1983). The behaviors
that employees may exhibit to reciprocate those who benefit them are organizational
citizenship behaviors (Tansky, 1993). In this research examined from this point of view,
it is hypothesized that there is a positive and significant relationship between the quality
of the leader member exchange and the organizational citizenship behaviors. For this
purpose, a research has been analyzed on a sample of blue collared employees of a gross
market chain located in Ankara. The results of the analysis show that the quality of the
leader member exchange is positively and significantly correlated with the organizational
citizenship behaviors.
Keywords: Organizational citizenship behavior, leader member exchange, social
exchange


Anahtar kelimeler


Örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları, lider üye etkileşimi, sosyal etkileşim

Tam metin:

PDF

Referanslar


Allen, T. D., Barnard, S. ve Rush, M. C. (2000). “Ratings of organizational citizenship behavior: Does the source make a difference?” Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 97-114.

Alexander, S. ve Ruderman, M. 1987. “The role of procedural and distributive justice in organizational behavior”. Social Justice Research, 1, 177-198.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Basu, R. ve Green, S.G. (1997). “Leader-member exchange and transformational leadership: an empirical examination of innovative behaviours in leader-member dyads”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 477-499.

Bateman, T. S. ve Organ, D. W. (1983). “Job satisfaction and the good soldier; The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship.”” Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587-595.

Bhagat, R. S., Ford, D. L., Jr., Jones, C. A. ve Taylor, R. R. (2002). “Knowledge management in global organizations: Implications for international human resource management”. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 21, 243–274.

Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York; Wiley.

Boies, K. ve Howell, J.M. (2006). “Leader-member exchange in teams: An examination of the interaction between relationship differentiation and mean LMX in explaining team-level outcomes”. Leadership Quarterly, 17 (3), 246-257.

Bolino, M. C. ve Turnley, W. H. (2003). “Going the extra mile: cultivating and managing employee citizenship behavior”. Academy of Management Executive, 17, 60–

Coyne, L. ve Ong, T. (2007). “Organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover intention: a cross-cultural study”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(6), 1085-1097.

Crowne, D. P. ve Marlowe, D. (1960). “A New Scale of Social Desirability Independent of Psychopathology”. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354.

Dansereau, F., Cashman, J. ve Graen, G. B. (1973). “Instrumentality theory and equity theory as complementary approaches in predicting the relationship of leadership and turnover among managers”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 10, 184-200.

Dansereau, F., Graen, G.B. ve Haga, W.J. (1975). “A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal Organizations”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46-78.

Deluga, R. J. (1992). The relationship of leader-member exchange with laissezfaire,transactional, and transformational leadership in naval environments. In K. E. Clark, M. B. Clark, & D. P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of leadership, 237-2 Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.

Deluga, R. J. (1994). “Supervisor trust building, leader-member exchange, and organizational citizenship Behavior”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 315-326.

Dienesch, R. M. ve Liden, R. C. (1986). “Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further Development”. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-6

Duchon, D., Green, S. G. ve Taber, T. D. (1986). “Vertical dyad linkage: A longitudinal assessment of antecedents, measures, and consequences”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 56-60.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. ve Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500- 507.

Erdem, F. S. (2008). Organizasyonlarda Lider-Üye Etkileşiminin Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı Üzerindeki Etkilerinde, İzlenim Yönetimi Davranışının Rolü: Kayseri’de Hizmet Sektöründe Bir Araştırma. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Kayseri: Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.

Etzioni, A. (1961). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press.

Gerstner, C. R. ve Day, D. V. (1997). “Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-8

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-178.

Göncü, A. (2006) Motivational Processes Involved in the Relationship between Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi.

Graen, G. B. (1976). Role-making processes within complex organizations. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1201-1245. Chicago: Rand-McNally.

Graen, G. B. ve Cashman, J. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A development approach. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers, 143-165. Kent, OH: Kent State Uni.

Graen, G. B., Novak, M. A. ve Sommerkamp, P. (1982). “The effects of leader-member exchange and job design on productivity and satisfaction: Testing a dual attachment model”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 109-1

Graen, G. B. ve Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward and psychology of dyadic organizing. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 175-20 Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Graen, G. B. ve Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). “Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective”. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.

Graen, G., Cashman, J., Ginsburgh, S. ve Schiemann, W. (1977). “Effects of linking-pin quality on the quality of working life lower participants”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 491-504.

Hackett, R. D., Farh, J. L., Song, L. J. ve Lapierre, L. M. (2003). LMX and organizational citizenship behavior: Examining links within and across Western and Chinese samples. In G. B. Graen (Ed.), LMX leadership: The series, 1, 2192 Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Hair, J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. ve Black, W. (1995). Multivariate data analysis: With readings. London: Prentice Hall.

Hofmann, D. A., Morgeson, F. P. ve Gerras, S. J. (2003). “Climate as a moderator of the relationship between leader-member exchange and content specific citizenship: Safety climate as an exemplar”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 170-178.

House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge, 189-207. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University.

Howard, A. (1995). The changing nature of work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Howell, J. M. ve Hall-Merenda, K. E. (1999). “The ties that bind: The impact of leadermember exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 680-6

Hoye, R. (2004). “Leader-Member Exchanges and Board Performance of Voluntary Sport Organizations”. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 15(1), 55-70.

Hsiung, H. H. (2008). A Comparison of Affiliative Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Challenging Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Northeast Decision Sciences Institute Proceedings.

Hui, C, Law, K. S. ve Chen, Z. X. (1999). “A structural equation model of the effects of negative affectivity, leader-member exchange, and perceived job mobility on in-role and extra-role performance: A Chinese case”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 77, 3-21.

Keller, T. ve Dansereau, F. (1995). “Leadership and empowerment: A social exchange perspective”. Human Relations, 48, 127-146.

Kemery, E. R., Bedeian, A. G. ve Zakur, S. R. (1996). “Expectancy-based job cognitions and job affect as predictors or organizational citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 635-651.

Kidwell, R. E., Jr., Mossholder, K. W. ve Bennett, N. (1997). “Cohesiveness and organizational citizenship behavior: A multilevel analysis using work groups and individuals”. Journal of Management, 23, 775-793.

Kraimer, M. L., Wayne, S. J. ve Jaworski, R. A. (2001). “Sources of support and expatriate performance: The mediating role of expatriate adjustment”. Personnel Psychology, 54, 71-99.

Lam, S. S., Hui, C. ve Law, K. S. (1999). “Organizational citizenship behavior: Comparing perspectives of supervisors & subordinates across four international samples”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84,594-601.

Lapierre L.M. ve Hackett R. D. (2007). “Trait conscientiousness, leader-member exchange, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A test of an integrative model”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 539-554.

Leana, C. R. (1986). “Predictors and consequences of delegation”. Academy of Management Journal, 2, 754-774.

LePine, J. A., Hanson, M., Borman, W. ve Motowidlo, S. J. (2000). Contextual performance and teamwork: Implications for staffing. In G.R Ferris & K.M. Rowland (Eds) Research in personnel and human resources management, 19, 53–90. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Levinson, H. (1965). “Reciprocation: The relationship between man and organization”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 9, 370-390.

Liden, R. C. ve Graen, G. (1980). “Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership”. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451-465.

Liden, R. C. ve Maslyn, J. M. (1998). “Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development”. Journal of Management, 24, 43–72.

Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T. ve Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management, 15, 47-119. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Major, D. A., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T. ve Gardner, P. D. (1995). “Newcomer expectations and early socialization outcomes: The moderating effect of role development factors”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 418-431.

Manogran, P. ve Conlon, E.J. (1993). A leader-member exchange approach to explaining organizational citizenship behavior. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, Georgia.

Manogran, P., Stauffer, J. ve Conlon, E. J. (1994). Leader-member exchange as a key mediating variable between employees’ perceptions of fairness and organizational citizenship behavior. Paper presented at the 54th Academy of Management meeting, Dallas, TX.

March, J. G. ve Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.

Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M. ve Taylor, M. S. (2000). “Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships”. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738-748.

McNeely, B. L. ve Meglino, B. M. (1994). “The role of dispositional and situational antecedents in prosocial organizational behavior: An examination of the intended beneficiaries of prosocial behavior”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 836-844.

Moorman, R. H. (1991). “Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship?” Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845-855.

Moorman, R. H. (1993). “The influence of cognitive and affective based job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior”. Human Relations, 46, 759-776.

Motowidlo, S. J., Borman, W. C. ve Schmit, M. J. (1997). “A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance”. Human Performance. 10, 71-83.

Motowidlo, S. J. ve Schmit, M. J. (1999). Performance assessment in unique jobs. In D. R. Ilgen & E. D. Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development, 56-87. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Murphy, S. K., Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C. ve Erdoğan, B. (2003). “Understanding social loafing: The role of justice perceptions and exchange relationships”. Human Relations, 56: 61–84.

Northouse, P.G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice. Second Edition. London: Sage.

Nunnally, J. ve Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory. 3rd edition. NY: McGraw Hill. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Organ, D. W. (1997). “Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time”. Human Performance, 10, 85-97.

Organ, D. W. ve Konovsky, M. (1989). “Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 157-1

Organ, D. W. ve Lingl, A. (1995). “Personality, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior”. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 339-350.

Organ, D. W. ve Ryan, K. (1995). “A meta-anatytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior”. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775-802.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M. ve MacKenzie. S. B. (1997). “Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance”. JournaI of Applied Psychology, 82, 262-270.

Podsakoff, P. M. ve MacKenzie, S. B. (1993). “Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness”. Journal of Marketing Research, 3(1), 351-363.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B. ve Bommer, W. H. (1996). “Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership us determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors”. Journal of Management, 22, 259-298.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H. ve Fetter. R. (1990). “Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors”. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-142. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B. ve Bachrach, D. G. (2000). “Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research”. Journal of Management, 26, 513-5

Podsakoff, P. N., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M. ve Blume, B. D. (2009). “Individualand Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 1221

Rousseau, D. M. (1989). “Psychological and implicit contracts in organizations”. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2, 121-139.

Ryan, J. J. (2001). “Moral reasoning as a determinant of organizational citizenship behaviors: A study in the public accounting profession”. Journal of Business Ethics, 33, 233-244.

Scandura, T. A., Graen, G. B. ve Novak, M. A. (1986). “When managers decide not to decide autocratically: An investigation of LMX and decision influence”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 579-584.

Scandura, T. A. ve Schriesheim, C. A. (1994). “Leader-member exchange and supervisor career mentoring as complementary constructs in leadership research”. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1588-1602.

Schnake, M. (1991). “Organizational Citizenship: A Review, Proposed Model, and Research Agenda”. Human Relations, 44: 735–59.

Scholl, R. W. (1981). “Differentiating organizational commitment from expectancy as a motivating force”. Academy of Management Review, 6, 589-599.

Schwarz, N. (1999). “Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers”. American Psychologist, 54, 93-105.

Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N. ve Liden, R. C. (1996). “Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange and employee reciprocity”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 219-227.

Shore, L. M. ve Wayne, S. J. (1993). “Commitment and employee behavior: Comparison of affective commitment and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 774-780.

Smith, C. A., Organ. D. W. ve Near, J. P. (1983). “Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and Antecedents”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 655-663.

Somech, A. ve Drach-Zahavy, A. (2004). “Exploring organizational citizenship behaviour from an organizational perspective: The relationship between organizational learning and organizational citizenship behaviour”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 281-298.

Sparrowe, R. T. (1994). “Empowerment in the hospitality industry: An exploration of antecedents and outcomes”. Hospitality Research Journal, 17(3), 51-73.

Tansky, J. W. (1993). “Justice and organizational citizenship behavior: What is the relationship?” Employees Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 6, 195-207.

Thibaut, J. W. ve Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York; Wile. Tierney, P. ve Bauer, T. N. (1996). A longitudinal assessment of LMX on extra-role behavior. Best Paper Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 298-302.

Truckenbrodt, Y.B. (2000). “The relation between leader-member exchange and commitment and organizational Behavior”. Acquisition Review Quarterly, 7, 233-244.

Tsui, A.S. ve Egan T.D. (1994). Performance implications of relational demography in vertical dyads. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Dallas, TX.

Tsui, A. S. ve O’Reilly, C. A. (1989). “Beyond simple demographic effects: The importance of relational demography in superior-subordinate dyads”. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 402-423.

Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W. ve Dienesch, R. M. (1994). “Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measuremeni and validation”. Academy of Management Journal. 37, 765-802.

Van Dyne, L. ve LePine, J. A. (1998). “Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity”. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 108Vecchio, R. P. ve Gohdel, B. C. (1984). “The vertical dyad linkage model of leadership: Problems and prospects”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 5-20.

Wakabayashi, M., Graen, G. B., Graen, M. ve Graen, M. (1988). “Japanese management progress: Mobility in middle management”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 217-227.

Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D.,Wang, D. ve Chen, Z. X. (2005). “Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior”. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 420-432.

Wayne, S. J. ve Green, S. A. (1993). “The effects of leader-member exchange on employee citizenship and impression management behavior”. Human Relations, 46, 1431-1440.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M. ve Liden, R. C. (1997). “Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective”. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82-111.

Wech, B. A. (2002). “Effect on organizational citizenship behavior, supervisory fairness, and job satisfaction beyond the influence of LMX”. Business & Society, 41(3).

Wilhelm, C. C., Herd, A. M. ve Steiner, D. D. (1993). “Attributional conflict between managers and subordinates: An investigation of leader-member exchange effects”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 531-544.

Williams, L. J. ve Anderson, S. E. (1991). “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment its predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors”. Journal of Management, 17, 601-617.

Yu, D. ve Liang, J. (2004). “A new model for examining the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory”. Human Resource Development Int., 7, 251-264.

Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in Organizations. (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHal.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.